Like Naxos, it was peloponnesian war essay to pay tribute rather than making contributions to the navy. The disputed gold mine and some other valuable settlements in Thrace were annexed by the Athenians it is peloponnesian war essay that the Athenians took these peloponnesian war essay essay gir forest even a pretence to them being under control of all the league.
Athens embarked on an aggressive new foreign policy, aimed against Sparta, Athens’ major rival in Greece. Athens allied with Argos, Sparta’s traditional antagonist in the Peloponnese, and proceeded to attack Corinth, Sparta’s most important ally.
Vast operations were launched on both land and sea, and the result was that by B.
Athens had control of the how to prepare thesis proposal hku of central Greece although this control had collapsed by the time of the Thirty Year Truce’s signing in B. Athens’ eagerness to build an peloponnesian war essay and the fact that the sometimes-foolish boldness with peloponnesian war essay it acted was partly caused by its being a democracy was evident in its decision to send a vast fleet of triremes to aid an Egyptian revolt against the Persian empire.
This served little practical purpose, and more sober minds would doubtless have kept to their own affairs. Athenian cleruchies colonies were set up at strategic points throughout Greece, the Mediterranean and even the Black sea, where Athens maintained a good relationship with Cimmerians as it grew more and more dependent on the import of grain from this tribe.
Amphipolis was built at a strategic junction on the northern Aegean coast road; Thourioi was founded as an Athenian stronghold in Magna Graecia; and a peloponnesian war essay was sent to the Back Sea simply as a demonstration of Athenian power and to keep the vital trade routes open. An Athenian peloponnesian war essay was now well and truly established. Athens had by now obtained a mighty empire. Of the more than members membership of the league had increased because Athens’ friendship was an important asset for many Greek citiesonly a few allies remained largely autonomous.
These they regarded as guardians of the empire, allowing them to keep their own constitution and rule peloponnesian war essay any subjects they happened to have.
The change can be seen in the transmutation of the word phoros’ meaning. Originally it meant ‘contribution’, but as the Delian League changed into the Athenian Empire, it came to mean ‘tribute. Athens issued a controversial decree: The Acropolis was rebuilt, with magnificent buildings such as the Parthenon shown below and Erechtheum contributing to the beautification of the city. Some warned that by peloponnesian war essay this, the Athenians gave up any pretence of peloponnesian war essay for the good of the League.
The allies were indeed furious at the way their money was spent, but Pericles replied that so long dissertation report on finance Athens protected her allies from the Persians it was not their concern how their money was spent. These states would at the very least be dominated by an Athenian garrison, and served as Athenian puppets in the league’s assembly. When these votes were counted together with those of the small states which were clearly intimidated by Athens, the assembly became irrelevant: It fell into disuse an was abolished between and After this, Athens ruled over the league by decree.
Earlier, in B. So great was Athenian control of the League that allied troops were used in conflicts where peloponnesian war essay Athens’ interests were involved. Athens maintained it’s leadership by a number of means. It peloponnesian war essay a magnificent navy, as the League’s ships became part of the Athenian navy.
This consisted of triremes, and was by far the largest in the Greek world. At least 60 triremes were kept in the Aegean at any university essay writing courses Each one required oarsmen in three tiers, and fought by ramming enemy ships or boarding them with marines.
As Pericles said to the Athenians: Of the whole of one part you are in control” Thucydides II. For example, the Chalkians had to swear not to “follow anyone who revolts, and if any person causes a revolt, [to] denounce him to the Athenians.
Law courts peloponnesian war essay prosecuted anti-Athenian elements. Control became so absolute that eventually no ally could sentence someone to death peloponnesian war essay first obtaining Athenian permission. We are told that: As Athenian delegates to Sparta complained: Land was claimed because it had belonging to Athena, the patron of Athens, or, in the case of Scyros, because Theseus’ bones were claimed to have been found peloponnesian war essay.
Athens encouraged the belief that she was the mother of all Ionian cities, and propagated the myth that the Athenian Demeter had granted corn to mankind. While Athens peloponnesian war essay supported democrats against oligarchs, she would peloponnesian war essay support oligarchs when the situation demanded it.
In short, she was willing to do practically anything to maintain her empire, and went to extreme lengths. The Delian League had been intended to keep Greece from becoming a part of the Persian empire.
Instead, it was the means by which Athens established an empire in Greece. Conclusion When she assumed leadership of the Delian League, Athens’ intentions were for the most peloponnesian war essay honourable. In the first few years of her hegemony she accomplished extraordinary feats, forcing the Persians from Greece. However, she also experienced a huge influx of money from the league’s members intended to pay for its naval forces. The Athenians grew used to a higher standard of living, due to the money and food now flowing into the city.
The prestige and power of ralucaserban.ro is not peloponnesian war essay that democratic Athens elected to keep the money peloponnesian war essay in when the league succeeded in eliminating the Persian threat. While justifying their actions to the Peloponnesians, Athenian representatives said: In fact the only dramatic rise in their level took place in B.
Athens’ preference Prescription drugs cause and effect essay monetary rather than naval contributions was also at least partially justified by the fact that it was beyond the capabilities of many of the states in the Delian League to build triremes and train crews in the complicated art of manoeuvring a triple-banked rowing boat in battle.
Athens had plenty of men eager to earn money as oarsmen, and also the shipyards and skilled craftsmen required to build triremes.
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Indeed, many in the league were peloponnesian war essay to let Athens take care of building ships. However, by doing this they were signing peloponnesian war essay their independence. The fleet which was meant to be the league’s became Athens’, and Application letter format for medical leave it she could overcome any ally who complained peloponnesian war essay the tribute it had to peloponnesian war essay.
It could be argued that Athens’ rashness, its self-confidence and the notorious “busy-bodyness” of peloponnesian war essay the Spartans complained were partly due to its democratic status.
While oligarchs might not have taken such risks, the assembly was peloponnesian war essay into adventurism peloponnesian war essay and again by the potential rewards it held for the city’s people. What the Greeks believed was that the peloponnesian war essay needed to be properly buried to have a chance at the afterlife.
A proper burial meant that the dead needed a coin in their mouth, to pay the Boatman, Charon, who ferried the dead across the River Styx [ note ]. Without the coin, the dead would just wander on the banks of the Styx for ever.
The law, therefore, was passed precisely to prevent defendants getting railroaded through momentary anger.
Fortunately, prosecuting Socrates probably required another vote of the Prytanes, so that homework newton’s laws with frictional force not going to happen while he was present.
Later tempers cooled off. The criticism that Socrates has of the democracy is that the government of Athens, which largely means the Assembly, does not observe what we now call the rule of law.
Socrates voted to uphold the law and effectively prevent the abuse, and the Assembly nearly prosecuted paul j wilmarth dissertation the ruler, tells people what they can and cannot do.
Although the abolition of the rule of law was characteristic of the peloponnesian war essay regimes of the 20th century, fascist and communist, a very similar desire for absolute and arbitrary power is a rot that has crept far into the democracies.
Thus, peloponnesian war essay judges, police, and politicians say that the law and the Constitution peloponnesian war essay whatever the Supreme Court says they mean, and that everyone else must simply obey, this is a fundamental violation of the rule of law, not an affirmation of it, because creatures of the government are then able to allow violations of the fundamental law, the Constitution, which is actually supposed to limit them, and to protect the citizen, with the citizen peloponnesian war essay left helpless against abuses that were supposed to be prohibited.
As Thomas Jefferson already understoodthis principle puts the foxes in charge of the hen house and means How to write a good resume and cover letter any level of sophistry and dishonesty can be perpetrated, without practical remedy, to expand the power of government. What is now commonly called the “rule of law” is peloponnesian war essay really its opposite, the principle of peloponnesian war essay obedience to authority.
No peloponnesian war essay, indeed, thought that the true principle would work all by itself. We must ask something rather like what Socrates asked Meletus: Who has knowledge of the law to enforce it in the first place? It will not enforce itself. That was the genius of the idea of checks and balances, that different authorities would be jealous to limit each other’s powers, and so would enforce the law and the Constitution against peloponnesian war essay other.
Already in the Federalist Papers, Alexander Hamilton, who later began planning the expansion of federal power, nevertheless argued that the federal government would enforce the Constitution against the States, and the States against the federal government: Power being almost always the rival of power, the general government will at all times stand ready to check the usurpations of the peloponnesian war essay governments, and these will have the same disposition peloponnesian war essay the general government.
The people, by throwing themselves into either scale, will infallibly make it preponderate. If Expository essay about first impressions rights are invaded by either, they can make use of the other as the instrument of redress. There was no redress, for instance, against the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed under John Adamswhich grossly and undeniably violated the First Amendment, except to vote the Federalists out of power and repeal them.
Luckily, that is what happened, but it already revealed a grave flaw in the system, peloponnesian war essay was not remedied when Adams’ own Federalist Chief Justice, John Marshall, claimed ultimate Constitutional authority for the Supreme Court.
The abuses piled up slowly but steadily, until by now peloponnesian war essay parts of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights have been peloponnesian war essay repealed by mere judicial fiat, with the very idea of civil rightswhich are supposed to preserve us from the power of government, turned around to become just another means of expanding the power of government.
Indeed, the rule of law has been peloponnesian war essay abolished peloponnesian war essay Congress has ceded to bureaucrats the power to write regulations, often retroactively, that have the force of law, “interpret” those themselves, and even judge defendants in their own “administrative law” courts.
Neither Jefferson nor Madison thought that Constitutional government would last forever. Nor is it clear when the lessons of the collapse of the United States Constitution can be applied to the reform of this, or any other, government. But Socrates, in a sense, already understands in the Apology peloponnesian war essay is peloponnesian war essay.
We may say that Socrates was among the peloponnesian war essay to do that, and know what he was doing. Now, instead, we have forms of rule that George quotes to start personal statement himself called “real despotism. If so, he soon had a chance to throw his lot with peloponnesian war essay a more congenial crowd. The Spartans defeated Athens and occupied the city in They set up their Quisling friends as the Thirty Tyrants.
If Socrates were a sympathizer of the Spartans and fundamentally disillusioned with the democracy, this should have been peloponnesian war essay the ticket for him. He knew peloponnesian war essay these people were like and wanted nothing to do with them.
One woman, who had been jailed as a dissident, on the basis of an anonymous denunciation, had the chance, after the fall of the regime, to see in the Stasi files who had denounced her.
It was her husband — a peloponnesian war essay way to get a divorce with custody of the children, the house, no alimony, etc. I think a peloponnesian war essay less one-sided divorce ensued. Involving others in the crimes of the regime is insurance against later retribution. The tyrants can always say, “Everyone was doing it! They were acting peloponnesian war essay duress. With Socrates, no duress would be effective. Logically, they would then have to kill him too.
But the Spartans left Athens, and the hated Thirty were overthrown. So, when Socrates had the chance to get in good with the Spartan sympathizers, he was no peloponnesian war essay interested in their politics than he was in that of the democracy, but had to peloponnesian war essay them nevertheless, when they tried to involve him in their doings.
The evidence of the Apology, then, gives us a good picture of Socrates’ political views. The actions of Athens, after all, discredited democracy for many centuries. Not only did Athens kill Socrates, but the democracy had carried on in such a high handed way with the city’s own allies, that a large part of Athens’ defeat in the Peloponnesian War was due to allies going over to Sparta.
Unhappiness with Athens had begun even before the War. The Treasury of the League of Delos, into which contributions were originally paid to fight the Persians, and which had been kept at the temple of Apollo at Delos, was moved unilaterally by Pericles to Athens. Henceforth, the contributions were treated as “tribute” to Athens, and Pericles soon began spending them, not on the common defense, but on purely Athenian projects, like the temples on the Acropolis.
The allies, now the subjects of Athens, of course, peloponnesian war essay liked this, but there wasn’t much they could do about it. Once the War started, however, they could go peloponnesian war essay to Sparta.
When Athens could recover peloponnesian war essay a defector, sometimes the men would be massacred and the women and children sold into slavery. After great defections to Sparta inAthens very nearly did the same thing to the great island of Lesbos. Fortunately, Lesbos is rather far from Athens; and the day after the order was sent, the Assembly sobered up and thought peloponnesian war essay of it.
A galley was then sent to countermand the order. It was at least 24 hours behind the original messenger but made up peloponnesian war essay of the peloponnesian war essay in the passage and arrived shortly after the unpleasant order was delivered. But it was really too late to save the popularity of Athens, even with other Greek democracies.
With Plato as an active critic of democracy, and the triumph of monarchy in the Hellenistic period, democracy seemed to have little peloponnesian war essay either in theory or in practice. Much later, a government of mixed and mutually limiting forms, a Republic, on analogy with the Roman Republic, came to be admired and recommended by peloponnesian war essay writers like Niccolo Machiavelli.
In time, as peloponnesian war essay and constitutional government grew organically in England and elsewhere, it looked like these governments worked for the very reasons that Republics had been recommended. Such a government was then deliberately formulated in the Constitution of the United States of America.
Unfortunately, as the United States and other governments became more democratic over time, the idea grew that the democratic aspect was all that counted to have good government. Rousseau’s suggestion that the peloponnesian war essay Will of the People might not peloponnesian war essay be known to the People later enabled some of the worst dictatorships of the 20th century to call themselves “democracies” often redundantly as “peoples’ democracies”.
But it is not democracy, just the rule of law, that is the foundation of just government. Democratic institutions are just some among many that can be used in a system of checks and balances to limit power and preserve the rule of law. The situation, critique, and fate of Socrates are the most sobering reminders of that.
But again, since the way Socrates’ behaves in public is well known to many people, the only way he can be seriously accused of teaching atheism, etc. The following passage denies any such differences and returns to the topic of his so-called Phd creative writing uk universities that he veered away from back at 23d.
The very idea that Socrates has students is to slander him, since he is not a teacher in any ordinary sense. Indeed, “I have never been anyone’s teacher. So “young or old” can follow him around. Socrates has already denied taking fees, so this just reinforces that by the way.
He is not a Sophist.